The cutting method is used to process wood into tools of the required shape and size. There are two types of woodworking knives: hand-use and machine-use. Machine-use woodworking knives are used in batch and mass production. Machine-used woodworking tools are divided into five categories: saws, blades, milling cutters, drills, and tenoning tools. Here let Chengdu Pudding Mechatronic Co. explain the “Types of Woodworking Tools and The Applications”
There are many kinds of knives for sawing wood, such as circular saws, band saws, chain saws and tube saws, among which circular saws and band saws are the most commonly used. When the saw cut is parallel to the wood grain, it is called longitudinal cutting (split), and when the saw cut is perpendicular to the wood grain, it is called cross cut (cut off). The latter uses a circular sawtooth shape that is different from the former to facilitate the cutting of fibers during cross cutting.
A flat tool with a cutting edge, used for wood plane processing or cutting processing. The blades with different parameters can be installed on various machine tools to perform processing in different ways, such as planing, peeling, scraping and shearing. Planing is used for plane processing, and the blade or workpiece generally moves in a straight line. Under certain conditions (such as reducing the cutting angle), it can be cut into thin wood, which is a high-quality decorative material. When peeling, the wood rotates around a fixed center, and the blade makes a continuous linear movement toward the center to cut the wood into strip-shaped thin wood (single board), which is used to produce plywood. Shearing is used to cut veneers during the production of plywood.
A rotary tool with one or more teeth. Through the relative movement of the workpiece and the milling cutter, each tooth cuts off the margin of the workpiece in turn and intermittently. Woodworking milling cutters can be divided into two types according to the clamping method: set milling cutter with hole and milling cutter with shank. The structure of the set milling cutter has three types: integral type, insert type and combined type. Milling cutters are widely used for processing planes, forming surfaces, mortises, mortises, grooves, and engraving in joinery production. Compared with milling cutters for metal cutting, woodworking milling cutters have larger rake and back angles in order to obtain a sharp edge and reduce cutting resistance. Another feature is that the number of cutting teeth is less and it has a larger chip holding space. In addition to tool steel and alloy steel, the materials of woodworking milling cutters are also widely used in cemented carbide to improve production efficiency and tool life.
Woodworking drills are rod-shaped or spiral-shaped tools with a blade at the end for machining through holes or blind holes. The difference between woodworking drill and woodworking end mill is that there is no edge on the side. In addition to the main cutting edge, the woodworking drill has a sharp sunken cutting edge to cut the wood fiber and make the side of the hole more flat.
Tenon Hole Machining tool
There are many types of special tools for processing mortise holes, such as hollow square chisels, hollow square chisels with drill bits, chain punches, and machine chisels. The end face of the hollow square chisel has a crescent-shaped cutting edge, which is used to cut square corners around the drill hole. A hollow square chisel with a drill bit is a combination of a drill bit and a square chisel, and the drill bit is installed in the hollow square chisel. The chain punch is a continuously rotating chain-type multi-tooth tool, which is similar to milling or longitudinal sawing when processing tenon holes. When using a machine chisel to make a mortise hole, the chisel makes a reciprocating cutting movement up and down.
Basic Knowledge of Woodworking Tools
1. The machines that use knives include: four-sided planer, vertical axis machine, planer, universal saw, manual lathe, double-head shears, etc.
2. Use a four-sided planer for straight lines. If the length is less than 400mm, you must prepare a long material and go through the four-sided planer. The four-sided planer and the ferrule can also be used on the vertical axis machine (right knife or left knife). The tungsten steel sheet of the knife is not easy to customize. When considering a combined tool, the combined tool size should not be mutually exclusive and must be closely related. The outer diameter is the same, and the shaft diameter is the same. After four-sided planing, one opens two, and the process flow must be distinguished.
3. The general panel knife type should be vertical shaft machine, indicating the material, so that the supplier can choose the hardness or density and rigidity of the tungsten steel sheet.
4. All arc-shaped knives need to use a vertical axis machine. The arc has curved arcs on both sides, and a total of 2 knives need to be made.
5 Be sure to pay attention to whether the arc-shaped parts need to be horizontal or vertical, and must be distinguished, you can refer to #400 large bowl top line cutter (combination knife), single vertical shaft is reverse rotation, double vertical shaft has a forward rotation, Or a reverse rotation, the shaft diameter is 30mm.
6 Male and female knives or finger joint knives should pay attention to the matching drawings or clearly indicate. The tool reverses direction.
7. The right knife or the upper knife of the four-sided planer is reverse rotation, the left knife or the lower knife is the forward rotation, and the feed 0 is the reference object. Just remember the wood feed and the knife
The direction of the tool must be reversed, and the direction of the cutter must not be consistent. The single vertical shaft is reverse rotation, and the planer is forward rotation; the diameter of the four-sided planer is
The shaft diameter of the vertical shaft machine is 40mm, the shaft diameter of the vertical shaft machine is 30mm. The shaft diameter of the wood shaving machine is 127mm, the shaft diameter of the universal saw is 25.4mm, and the universal saw is forward rotation.
8. Coding Rules for tools
1) The serial number of the vertical axis knife indicates the number of the knife or the combination knife ABc (where the even number is forward rotation, and the odd number is reverse rotation)
2) Four-sided planer serial number A means left knife, B means right knife, C upper knife, D lower knife, 1 means quantity
3) The flat knife is based on the height, which means the square of 100H
4) Slot knife is called slot knife with the knife used for grooving
5) The shaving knives are divided into conventional shaving knives, clearing shaving knives, and ordinary shaving knives are consumables. When drawing and archiving, they are divided into bearing shaving knives, engraving knives, and dragon ball knives.
6) Four-sided planer: Mainly used on the four-sided planer to prepare the parts in the longitudinal direction without bending.
7) Steel blade: Mainly used for planing machines such as single press planer, double press planer, hand press planer, etc., to plan the surface of parts
8) Saw blade: Mainly used for double shears, automatic double shears, vertical shaft machines, hanging saws, vertical saws, platform saws, panel cutting machines, automatic edge banding machines and other machines. Processing of opening, trimming, fixed width, truncation, etc.
9) Saw blade: Mainly used for band saws and wire saws to perform precision sawing and other processing on parts.
10) Drills: Mainly used for various punching machines and engraving machines to punch parts. Straight shank drill bit: Mainly used to process the internal and external dowel holes, horizontal button holes, and laminated glass holes of components
9. The cutting bottom diameter of the tool: relative to the minimum distance between the two cutting points of the tool, the bottom diameter is generally medium 100 or medium 65, and it can also be used for medium 90 or medium 80. The bottom diameter of the module needs to be smaller than the arc R of the workpiece The size cannot be larger than this rounded corner.
10. The cutting outer diameter of the tool: the distance between the largest two points of the relative knife cutting, the largest is generally 150; the general number of teeth is 12T or 8T for universal saws for 4T. , Four-sided planing is 4T.
11 knife=tungsten steel length*width*height*number of teeth*base*discounted, the cutter generally needs to be 8mm wide and 3mm thick.
12. Classification of cutters: cutters are mainly used for cutting, cutting, gongs, drilling, planing, etc., on the machine.
There are different names and specifications, which can be customized as needed.
1) Engraving knife: It is mainly used for engraving machine, small gong machine, dovetail tenon machine to process gong-shaped, grooved, perforated, gong-groove, and rounded edges on product parts.
2) Vertical shaft knife: Mainly used on the vertical shaft gong machine automatic double shearing machine, to process the gong shape and other parts.
3) Side slot knife: Mainly used for grooving and tenoning parts on hanging saws and double shears.
4) Double-head screw holes, bed hook screw holes, perforations, positioning holes, etc. The positioning hole depends on the specifications of the dowel. The fastener and the dowel are firmly connected, and the hole position of the connector should be increased by 1mm.
5) Drill bits: 611115 two straight shank single-layer drill bits are used for inner and outer teeth according to the material. Two types of 9-9.5 drill bits are used for middle 1/4″ inner and outer teeth according to the material.
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